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Types of Bricks

Types of Bricks
July 16
11:25 2014
Types of Bricks Bricks Types of Bricks Types of Bricks2

Types of Bricks

The type of building material to use in a is dependent upon many factors, such as it life time, purpose, loads it must carry, environmental condition it is exposed to etc. Therefore different types of bricks are manufactured in order to suit a particular requirement.

Some of the different types of bricks used around the world are:

Bullnose brick:

A brick moulded with a rounded angle is termed as a bullnose. It is used for a rounded quoin. A connection which is formed when a wall takes a turn is known as a quoin. The centre of the curved portion is situated on the long centre-line of brick.

Channel bricks:

These types of bricks are moulded to the shape of a gutter or a channel and they are very often glazed. These bricks are used to function as drains.

Coping bricks:

These types of bricks are made to suit the thickness of walls on which coping is to be provided. Such bricks take various forms such as chamfered, half-round or saddle-back.

Cownose bricks:

A brick moulded with a double bullnose on end is known as a cownose.

Curved sector bricks:

These bricks are in the form of curved sector and they are used in the of circular brick masonry pillars, brick chimneys, etc.

Hollow bricks:

These are also known as the cellular or cavity bricks. Such bricks have wall thickness of about 20 mm to 25 mm. They are prepared from special homogeneous clay. They are light in weight about one-third the weight of the ordinary brick of the same size. These bricks can be laid almost about four times as fast as the ordinary bricks and thus the use of such bricks leads to speedy construction. They also reduce the transmission of heat, sound and damp. They are used in the construction of brick partitioning.

Paving bricks:

These types of bricks are prepared from clay containing higher percentage of iron. The excess iron vitrifies the bricks at a low temperature. Such bricks resist better the abrasive action of traffic. The paving bricks may be plain or chequered. These bricks are extensively used for garden walks, street pavements, stable floors, etc. These bricks also render the brick floor less slippery.

Perforated bricks:

These types of bricks contain cylindrical holes throughout their thickness . These bricks are light in weight and they require less quantity of clay for their preparation. The drying and burning of these bricks are also easy. If perforated bricks of large size are used, it will result in the increase of output of mason. It has been observed that for tropical countries like India, the bricks with perforations of about 30 to 45 per cent of the total area of the corresponding face of the brick would offer adequate thermal insulation property.

The perforated bricks are used in the construction of brick panels for light weight structures and multi-storeyed framed structures. The perforations may be circular, square, rectangular or any other regular shape in cross-section. The distance between the side of brick and edge of perforation should not be less than 15 mm. The distance between the edges of successive perforations should preferably be not less than 10 mm. The water absorption after immersion for 24 hours in water should not exceed 15 per cent by weight. The compressive strength of perforated bricks should not be less than 7 N/mm2 on gross area.

Purpose-made bricks:

In order to achieve certain purpose, these types of bricks are made. The splay or cant bricks are made for jambs of doors and windows. The arch bricks are made of wedge shape to keep mortar joint of uniform thickness.

The ornamental bricks are prepared for corbels, cornices, etc. The engineering bricks having considerable strength, 50 to 80 N/mm2 and water absorption about 4 to 6 per cent, can be prepared from specially selected earth for use in constructions where high durability, compression strength and adequate resistance to sudden shocks are required.

These types of bricks are usually more costly than the ordinary bricks. But they grant safe, clean and quick construction. Hence, their cost is justified by their excellent performance in situations for which they are purposely prepared.

Different Types of Bricks Bricks Types of Bricks Types of Bricks

Various Types of Bricks

Various Types of Bricks used commonly in India are:

  • Common Burnt Clay Bricks
  • Sand Lime Bricks (Calcium Silicate Bricks)
  • Concrete Bricks
  • Fly ash Clay Bricks
  • Fire Clay Bricks

Common Burnt Clay Bricks

Clay bricks are fired bricks. These are formed by pressing in moulds or by an extrusion and wire cutting process. Then these bricks are dried and fired in a kiln.
Sand Lime Bricks (Calcium Silicate Bricks)

These bricks are mixtures of sand and hydrated lime pressed in moulds and cured in a high-pressure steam autoclave.

Concrete Bricks

Concrete bricks are mixtures of Cement, sand and aggregates vibrated in moulds and steam cured.

Fly ash Clay Bricks

Fly ash is used along with clay in these bricks. Fly ash is obtained from boilers of thermal power stations.

Fire Clay Bricks

Fire clay exists at much depth below the surface and is usually mined. Generally, Fire clays contain metallic oxides less than surface clays and have more uniform chemical and physical properties.

Recommended Bricks for Construction in India

Common burnt clay bricks are recommended for construction of a house. The bricks should be burnt in kiln thoroughly so that they become hard and durable. The two bricks should give a hard ringing sound when they are struck together. The bricks should have rectangular shapes with sharp corners and uniform colours. The bricks should be free from cracks, chips and warp ages, large particles of lime and organic matter. First class bricks are suitable for construction of a building.

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