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Proper Planning for Water Supply and Sewerage at the time of construction

Proper Planning for Water Supply and Sewerage at the time of construction
August 19
10:03 2014
Water Supply and Sewerage water supply and sewerage Proper Planning for Water Supply and Sewerage at the time of construction Water Supply and Sewerage

Water Supply and Sewerage

When construct a building; drainage, water supply and sewerage are as necessary as the other al areas just like foundation, brick work and laying RCC slab etc. Commonly it is observed that many house owners never pay proper attention towards these works.

In case you neglect proper water supply and sewerage by using low quality material or by employing inexperienced plumber, you may have to face great problems as stated below.

  • There might be leakage problem that may damage the plaster, the paint and the wood work.
  • Appearance of the building may look very bad because of dampness.
  • There can be a problem of bad smell.
  • House owner feels inconvenience because of blockage of water supply and sewer.
  • Polluted water may spread on the floor of toilet because of blockage in the sewer line.
  • The lifetime of building is reduced because of leakage and dampness.
  • The foundation can be damaged because of the leakage.
  • The repair of the leakage is extremely expensive as it is done after breaking the plaster, the brick work, and the flooring.
  • In many cases it is hard to identify the leakage because dampness seems over a large area.
  • The life of persons could impact because of the issues mentioned above.

Just to save some money in material will definitely cost much in later.

Material of good quality must be purchased for water supply, sewerage and drainage work before you start the work. The below points must be kept in mind when buying the material.

  • Three varieties of G.I. pipes available in the market are following.

  • Light Duty Pipe marked at the end with yellow color and it is stamped at every meter.

  • Medium Duty Pipe marked at the end with blue color and it is stamped at every meter.

  • Heavy Duty Pipe marked at the end with red color and it is stamped at every meter.

  • Light duty pipe must not be used because it has short life. In water supply works use high quality pipes because these pipes have more durability by 50% compared to medium duty pipe. The price of heavy duty pipe is more by just 10% than the cost of medium duty pipes. While buying the material ISI mark must be checked on the pipe and the pipe must be stamped at every meter.
  • While laying the pipe line G.I. Fittings/Fixtures of good quality must be used. If G.I. Fittings or Fixtures of low quality are used, it might crack by the end and would rust in short time.
  • The fitting of good quality is heavy in weight, proper size and deep threading, and in good finishing. It could be judged by verifying a few samples.
  • In sewer lines “Cast Iron Pipe” is usually used. While buying C. I. Pipes the following factors must be kept in mind.
    • There must be ISI mark on the pipe.

    • Pipe must be free from pin hole, cracks and need to have good finish.
  • Leakage of C.I. pipe might be checked by erecting the pipe temporarily in the earth and fill in the pipe with water up to top. If you find any hole or crack in the pipe, the water can come out and thus the pipe can be rejected.
  • Heavy duty PVC pipes are as good as C.I. pipes when they are laid with suitable jointing and care. It has 50% more life and it is cheaper than C I pipes.

Note:

  • While surveying the market for the material, the quality of the material must be checked by the rates obtained from at least 3 or 4 shops.
  • Verify the rates of all the needed items at one time, not for the main item only. Shopkeeper may tell fewer rates for main item/pipe etc. but he will charge more rates on other items in later.
  • Purchase accessories of good quality after verification of the sample; whether the durability of any accessory is much and if guaranty is obtained from the shopkeeper.

Points to be considered when laying Water Supply Pipe Lines

  • Sewer line and water supply line must not have any contact with each other. Both the lines must have a separation of 3 meters for horizontal pipe lines and 50 cm for vertical pipe lines to prevent contamination of drinking water.
  • Pipe line must be passed through MS tube sleeve allowing flexibility for expansion and contraction where it crosses a wall or floor.
  • G. I. Pipe line must not be touching lime or lime mortar because the lime effects on the pipe.
  • Water tank should be provided with over flow pipe up to the rain water pipe. Water tank should be 30 cm high from tile tracing for easy cleaning.
  • Pipe line in the wall must have 1.5 cm cover for receiving plaster to prevent cracks on the surface.
  • Pipe line must be laid down with minimum cushion of 2 feet under the Berms (Pushta) and 4 feet under the roads.
  • All the joints must be tight properly by using thread and safeda.
  • Pipe line must be tested either by smoke test or by maximum working pressure of the pipes and the joints should be water tight absolutely.
  • If the Gate Valve is used regularly, the discharge will spoil soon. Globe Valve is preferred (Globe Valve is more costly than Gate valve).
  • Unions must be provided with Stop Cocks.

Points to be considered while laying Sanitary and Sewer Pipes

  • Generally it is observed that the top of floor trap is not fixed by taking proper level of the floor of the building. Incorrect level of the floor makes problem of drainage. The floor trap must be fixed after marking the levels of the suggested floor in the building.
  • Top of floor trap in toilet and kitchen should be 12 MM to 20 MM down from the floor level of the building to provide proper slope for easy drainage of water.
  • Where sewer line crosses the road or drain it must be passed through C.I. or RCC pipes.
  • Greater the depth of the seal can be more effective it will prevent bad air to come to house from sewer.
  • Waste pipe must be connected with main sewer only through gully trap to prevent direct bad smell.
  • For easy self cleaning in sewer line the minimum gradient/slope should be provided as follows.
  1. 100 MM dia pipe 1in 57
  2. 150 MM dia pipe 1 in 100
  3. 200 MM dia pipe 1 in 145
  • During execution the mouth of pipes must be covered with empty gunny bags to prevent blockage.
  • The joints should be filled with spun yarn, lead and ensure suitable cocking to prevent any leakage.
  • The foundation and sewer line must be inspected well before laying of the floor to avoid damage to the floor.
  • Close the sewer line at one side by using gunny bags or Cement mortar and fill in the pipe with water on the other side till the pipe is totally filled. Wait for One to two days. If there might be any leakage, the water will come to the surface of the pipe or in the joints of the pipe.
  • After checking the leakage, top of the pipe line should be covered with cement concrete.
  • Stone ware glazed pipe should be of class A.

Always remember when fixing accessories

  • Mosquito proof Jali must be fixed in flushing cistern and in over flow pipe of the tank.
  • All the pipes which are in open must be painted well to prevent the rust.
  • Ball cock must be provided in water tank.
  • Care must be taken that all the fittings like Bib Cock etc. are fitted tightly but they must not spoil the surface of the fittings.
  • All the sanitary fittings must be done very carefully without damaging any surface of sanitary ware or without creating any crack.
  • It is recommended that fitting must be covered by papers or old clothes prior to painting. If any splashes of the paint drop on fittings, these stains must be cleaned immediately.

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